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Free-living Gymnamoebia (Rhizopoda, Lobosea): a checklist of species, with illustrations, advices on identification and guide to the literature

Appeared online: 09.10.2000. Last revised: 02.04.2003


Class Lobosea Carpenter, 1861
Subclass Gymnamoebia Haeckel, 1866
Order Euamoebida Lepsi, 1960
Family Amoebidae Ehrenberg, 1838
  1. Amoeba proteus (Pallas, 1766) Leidy, 1878
  2. Amoeba borokensis Kalinina, Afon'kin, Gromov, Khrebtukova & Page, 1987
  3. Amoeba leningradensis Page & Kalinina, 1984
  4. Amoeba amazonas Flickinger, 1974
  5. Chaos carolinense (Willson, 1900) King & Jahn, 1948
  6. Chaos illinoisense (Kudo, 1950) Bovee & Jahn, 1973
  7. Chaos nobile (Penard, 1902) Bovee & Jahn, 1973
  8. Chaos glabrum Smirnov & Goodkov, 1997
  9. Polychaos fasciculatum (Penard, 1902) Schaeffer, 1926
  10. Polychaos annulatum (Penard, 1902) Smirnov & Goodkov, 1998
  11. Polychaos dubium (Schaeffer, 1916) Schaeffer, 1926
  12. Polychaos nitidubium Bovee, 1970 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  13. Deuteramoeba algonquinensis (Baldock, Rogerson & Berger, 1983) Page, 1987
  14. Deuteramoeba mycophaga (Pussard, Alabouvette & Pons, 1980) Page, 1988
  15. Trichamoeba sinuosa Siemensma & Page, 1986
  16. Trichamoeba myakka Bovee, 1972 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  17. Trichamoeba cloaca Bovee, 1972 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  18. Trichamoeba osseosaccus Schaeffer, 1926 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  19. Parachaos zoochlorellae (Willumsen, 1982) Willumsen, Siemensma & Suhr-Jessen, 1987
  20. Hydramoeba hydroxena (Entz, 1912) Reynolds & Looper, 1928
Family Hartmannellidae (Volkonsky, 1931) Page, 1974
  1. Saccamoeba stagnicola Page, 1974
  2. Saccamoeba limax (Dujardin, 1841) Page, 1974
  3. Saccamoeba lucens Frenzel, 1892 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  4. Saccamoeba wakulla Bovee, 1972 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  5. Saccamoeba limna Bovee, 1972 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  6. Saccamoeba wellneri Siemensma, 1987 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  7. Saccamoeba marina Anderson, Rogerson & Hannah, 1997
  8. Cashia limacoides (Page, 1967) Page, 1974
  9. Glaeseria mira (Glaeser, 1912) Volkonsky, 1931
  10. Hartmannella cantabrigiensis Page, 1974
  11. Hartmannella vermiformis Page, 1967
  12. Hartmannella lobifera Smirnov, 1997
  13. Hartmannella abertawensis Page, 1980
  14. Hartmannella vacuolata Anderson, Rogerson & Hannah, 1997
  15. Nolandella hibernica (Page, 1980) Page, 1983
Family Thecamoebidae (Schaeffer, 1926) Smirnov & Goodkov, 1994
  1. Thecamoeba striata (Penard, 1890) Schaeffer, 1926
  2. Thecamoeba quadrilineata (Carter, 1856) Lepsi, 1960
  3. Thecamoeba munda (Schaeffer, 1926) Smirnov, 1999
  4. Thecamoeba orbis Schaeffer, 1926
  5. Thecamoeba hilla Schaeffer, 1926
  6. Thecamoeba sparolata Fishbeck & Bovee, 1993
  7. Thecamoeba sphaeronucleolus (Greef, 1891) Schaeffer, 1926
  8. Thecamoeba verrucosa (Ehrenberg, 1838) Schaeffer, 1926
  9. Thecamoeba terricola (Greef, 1866) Lepsi, 1960
  10. Thecamoeba similis (Greef, 1891) Lepsi, 1960
  11. Sappinia diploidea (Hartmann & Naegler, 1908) Alexieff, 1912
  12. Dermamoeba granifera (Greef, 1866) Page & Blakey, 1979
  13. Dermamoeba minor (Pussard, Alabouvette & Pons, 1979) Page, 1988
  14. Paradermamoeba valamo Smirnov & Goodkov, 1993
  15. Paradermamoeba levis Smirnov & Goodkov, 1994
  16. Pseudothecamoeba proteoides (Page, 1976) Page, 1988
  17. Thecochaos album (Greef, 1891) Page, 1981 known from stained preparations only, needs re-isolation
  18. Thecochaos fibrillosum (Greef, 1891) Page, 1981 known from stained preparations only, needs re-isolation
Family Vannellidae (Bovee, 1970) Page, 1987
  1. Vannella simplex (Wohlfarth-Bottermann, 1960) Smirnov, Nassonova, Holzmann and Pawlowski, 2002
  2. Vannella platypodia (Glaeser, 1912) Page, 1976
  3. Vannella lata Page, 1988
  4. Vannella cirifera (Frenzel, 1892) Page, 1988
  5. Vannella miroides Bovee, 1965
  6. Vannella persistens Smirnov & Brown, 2000
  7. Vannella peregrinia Smirnov & Fenchel, 1996
  8. Vannella devonica Page, 1979
  9. Vannella aberdonica Page, 1980
  10. Vannella caledonica Page, 1979
  11. Vannella arabica Page, 1980
  12. Vannella anglica Page, 1980
  13. Vannella serpentrionalis Page, 1980
  14. Vannella sensilis Bovee & Sawyer, 1979 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  15. Vannella mira (Schaeffer, 1926) Smirnov, 2002
  16. Vannella ebro Smirnov, 2001
  17. Platyamoeba placida (Page, 1968) Page, 1969
  18. Platyamoeba stenopodia Page, 1969
  19. Platyamoeba schaefferi Singh & Hanumaiah, 1979
  20. Platyamoeba plurinucleolus Page, 1974
  21. Platyamoeba calycinucleolus Page, 1974
  22. Platyamoeba bursella Page, 1974
  23. Platyamoeba australis Page, 1983
  24. Platyamoeba mainensis Page, 1971
  25. Platyamoeba flabellata Page, 1974
  26. Platyamoeba pseudovannellida Hauger, Rogerson & Anderson, 2001
  27. Platyamoeba murchelanoi Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, generic position questionable
  28. Platyamoeba langae Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, generic position questionable
  29. Platyamoeba weinsteini Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, generic position questionable
  30. Platyamoeba douvresi Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, generic position questionable
  31. "Clydonella" rosenfeldi Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, generic position questionable
  32. "Clydonella" sindermanni Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, generic position questionable
  33. "Clydonella" wardi Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, generic position questionable
  34. "Lingulamoeba" leei Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, generic position questionable
  35. "Pessonella" marginata Pussard, 1973 ultrastructure unknown, generic position questionable
The genera Clydonella and Lingulamoeba (Sawyer, 1975-Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 94:305-323) and Pessonella (Pussard, 1973-Protistologica 9:175-185) are established basing on LM data only. Their representatives needs EM study to confirm the validity of mentioned genera. I have TEM indications that the cell coat of Pessonella is identical to that of Vannella and the cell coat of Clydonella is organised like in Platyamoeba (Smirnov, unpubl.). Both mentioned genera may be closed in future, and their species will be distributed between Vannella and Platyamoeba, respectively.

Family Paramoebidae (Poche, 1913) Page, 1987

  1. Mayorella viridis (Leidy, 1874) Harnisch, 1968
  2. Mayorella cantabrigiensis Page, 1983
  3. Mayorella vespertilioides Page, 1983
  4. Mayorella penardi Page, 1972
  5. Mayorella bigemma (Schaeffer, 1926) Schaeffer, 1926 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  6. Mayorella augusta Schaeffer, 1926 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  7. Mayorella pussardi Hollande, Nicolas & Escaig, 1981
  8. Mayorella kuwaitensis (Page, 1982) Page, 1983
  9. Mayorella gemmifera Schaeffer, 1926
  10. Mayorella dactylifera Goodkov & Buryakov, 1986
  11. Korotnevella stella (Schaeffer, 1926) Goodkov, 1988
  12. Korotnevella bulla (Schaeffer, 1926) Goodkov, 1988
  13. Korotnevella diskophora Smirnov, 1999
  14. Korotnevella nivo Smirnov, 1997
  15. Korotnevella hemistilolepis O'Kelly, Peglar, Black, Sawyer & Nerad, 2001
  16. Korotnevella monacantholepis O'Kelly, Peglar, Black, Sawyer & Nerad, 2001
  17. Paramoeba eilhardi Schaudinn, 1896
E.Bovee (1951-Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 58: 415-421; 1961-Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 80: 54-62; 1970-Arch. Protistenk. 112: 178-227) lists 19 more Mayorella-like and Korotnevella-like amoebae combined in the genus Mayorella and 4 more genera (Flagellipodium Bovee, 1961; Oscillosignum Bovee, 1951; Subulamoeba Bovee, 1951 and Trienamoeba Bovee, 1970); all these species need re-isolation and study prior to be recognised as a valid ones and assigned to any genus; the same is true for all 4 mentioned genera.

F.C. Page in his keys use the generic name "Dactylamoeba Korotneff, 1880" (Page, 1981-Protistologica 17: 543-562) which was replaced with the name "Korotnevella" by Goodkov (1988-Zoologicheskij journal 67: 1728-1730). The generic name "Dactylamoeba" is incorrect and should not be used. See Smirnov (1997-Arch. Protistenk. 147: 283-292) for details.

Family Vexilliferidae Page, 1987

  1. Vexillifera bacillipedes Page, 1969
  2. Vexillifera granatensis Mascaro, Osuna & Mascaro, 1986
  3. Vexillifera lemani Page, 1976 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  4. Vexillifera minutissima Bovee & Sawyer, 1979 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  5. Vexillifera armata Page, 1979
  6. Vexillifera telmathalassa Bovee, 1956 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  7. Vexillifera aurea Schaeffer, 1926 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  8. Vexillifera browni Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  9. Vexillifera ottoi Sawyer, 1975 ultrastructure unknown, needs re-isolation
  10. Pseudoparamoeba pagei (Sawyer, 1975) Page, 1983
  11. Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis Page, 1970
  12. Neoparamoeba aestuarina Page, 1970
There are little-known genera of Vexillifera-like amoebae Boveella Sawyer (1975-Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 94:71-92) Trienamoeba (Bovee, 1970 - Arch.Protistenk. 112:178-227). Representatives of both must be studied with EM to make a desision about the validity and position of these genera.

Order Leptomyxida (Pussard & Pons, 1976) Page, 1987
Suborder Rhizoflabellina Page, 1987
Family Flabellulidae Bovee, 1970

  1. Flabellula citata Schaeffer, 1926
  2. Flabellula calkinsi (Hogue, 1914) Page, 1983
  3. Flabellula demetica Page, 1980
  4. Flabellula trinovanica Page, 1980
  5. Flabellula baltica Smirnov, 1999
  6. Paraflabellula kudoi (Singh & Hanumaiah, 1979) Page, 1983
  7. Paraflabellula reniformis (Schmoller, 1964) Page, 1983
  8. Paraflabellula hoguae (Sawyer, 1975) Page, 1983
  9. Flamella citrensis Bovee, 1956
  10. Flamella magnifica Schaeffer, 1926
  11. Flamella tiara Fishbeck & Bovee, 1993
  12. Flamella lacustris Michel & Smirnov, 1999
  13. Flamella aegyptia Michel & Smirnov, 1999
Family Leptomyxidae (Pussard & Pons, 1976) Page, 1987
  1. Leptomyxa reticulata Goodey, 1914
  2. Leptomyxa fragilis (Penard, 1904) Siemensma, 1987
  3. Rhizamoeba polyura Page, 1972
  4. Rhizamoeba saxonica Page, 1974
  5. Rhizamoeba australiensis (Chakraborty & Pussard, 1985) Page, 1988
  6. Rhizamoeba schnepfi
  7. Rhizamoeba clavarioides (Penard, 1902) Siemensma, 1980
  8. Rhizamoeba flabellata (Goodey, 1914) Cann, 1984
  9. Rhizamoeba caerulea (Schaeffer, 1926) Siemensma, 1980
Suborder Leptoramosina Page, 1987
Family Gephyramoebidae Pussard & Pons, 1976

  1. Gephyramoeba delicatula Goodey, 1914
Family Stereomyxidae Grell, 1966
  1. Stereomyxa ramosa Grell, 1966
  2. Stereomyxa angulosa Grell, 1966
Order Loboreticulatida Page, 1987
Family Corallomyxidae Page, 1987

  1. Corallomyxa chatonni Grell & Benwitz, 1978
  2. Corallomyxa mutabilis Grell, 1966
  3. Corallomyxa multipara Grell, 1988
Order Acanthopodida Page, 1976
Family Acanthamoebidae Sawyer & Griffin, 1975

    Species composition of the genus Acanthamoeba is questionable, and non-morphological methods require to distinguish some species. There are serious disagreements between authors about the validity of species and sinonymics. In contrast with other sections of this checklist, here only approximate species composition is listed - namely, species, recognisable at the morphological level and accepted by most of scientists. I would be grateful for any comments on the composition of the genus Acanthamoebae.

  1. Acanthamoeba tubiashi Lewis & Sawyer, 1979
  2. Acanthamoeba astronixis (Ray & Hayes, 1954) Page, 1967
  3. Acanthamoeba comandoni Pussard, 1964
  4. Acanthamoeba lugdunensis Pussard & pons, 1977
  5. Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas, 1930) Volkonski, 1931
  6. Acanthamoeba rhysodes (Singh, 1952) Griffin, 1972
  7. Acanthamoeba mauritaniensis Pussard & Pons, 1977
  8. Acanthamoeba polyphaga (Pushkarew, 1913) Volkonsky, 1931
  9. Acanthamoeba griffini Sawyer, 1971
  10. Acanthamoeba quina Pussard & Pons, 1977
  11. Acanthamoeba divionensis Pussard & Pons, 1977
  12. Acanthamoeba triangularis Pussard & Pons, 1977
  13. Acanthamoeba hatchetti Sawyer, Visvesvara & Harke, 1977
  14. Acanthamoeba palestinensis (Reich, 1933) Page, 1977 the species Acanthamoeba pustulosa we accept to be a synonyme of A. palestinensis
  15. Acanthamoeba royreba Willaert, Stevens & Tyndall, 1978
  16. Acanthamoeba culbertsoni (Singh & Das, 1970) Griffin, 1972
  17. Acanthamoeba lenticulata Molet & Ermolieff-Braun, 1976
  18. Acanthamoeba gigantea Schmoller, 1964
  19. Acanthamoeba jacobsi Sawyer, Nerad & Visvesvara, 1992
  20. Acanthamoeba stevensoni Sawyer, Nerad, Lewis & McLaughlin, 1993
  21. Acanthamoeba pearcei Nerad, Sawyer, Levis & McLaughlin, 1995
  22. Acanthamoeba healyi Moura, Wallace & Visvesvara, 1992
  23. Protacanthamoeba caledonica Page, 1981
  24. Protacanthamoeba invadens (Singh & Hanumaiah, 1979) Page, 1981
Gymnamoebia incertae sedis
Rhizopoda incertae sedis
  • Family Entamoebidae Chatonn, 1925
    the only probably free-living member of this family is Entamoeba moshkovskii Chalaja, 1941
    All other species are obligate parasites


    Gymnamoebia: cheklist of species   Amoebae: bibliography   Useful links   Start page  

    How to identify an amoeba?   Ecology of amoebae